Cleaning is about ensuring a healthy living environment. This is especially important when growing chicks. It should be remembered that the mental and physical health of the bird is largely dependent on its habitat. This is especially important for chicks before plumage. When birds hatch chicks, they become very at risk of developing various diseases. So, parrot hatching chicks are much more susceptible to disease than other birds.
Maestro (kakarik, or jumping parrot). Vl. Elhimova Julia
In this critical period, even relatively safe microorganisms in certain circumstances can cause an outbreak. The conditions that cause disease and the growth of pathogens are moisture, heat, decaying organic matter, overpopulation, stress, weakened pets, darkness, as well as cracks and crevices in the cage (aviary). Therefore, every effort must be made to avoid and eliminate these conditions using proper sanitation.
How the disease spreads. An infectious disease is caused by pathogens that are transmitted in several ways. Chicks can be infected by direct, indirect or droplet transmission, as well as using a carrier. Direct infection requires physical contact with the infected bird or its excreta. Bacteria, fungi, spores and viruses can spread through the air, as well as infectious microorganisms. Carriers spread the disease by transferring microorganisms mechanically with their limbs or secretions. Wild birds, rodents, ants, flies, hedgehogs and poor sanitation are usually the carriers of diseases in a nursery or aviary.
Indirect pollution is the most common way of spreading pathogens. Pathogenic organisms unwittingly spread by our hands or infected feeders, bedding, cells and nests. Also, the disease can spread through contaminated water, food, bowls, etc. Dishes and aviary equipment (cages) should be washed well in hot soapy water, and then thoroughly disinfected at regular intervals, after which they are rinsed well with running water.
It is important to know the most dangerous pathogens in order to be able to prevent and cure them. These include bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative), fungi (yeast, mold), viruses and simple single-celled organisms. Of all of them, it is most difficult to get rid of viruses and fungi, since they are able to withstand adverse conditions, including maximum and minimum temperatures. But the simplest unicellular, for example, Trichomonas, is easy to destroy with the help of high temperature, sunlight and chemicals.
Salmonella, cocci and gram-negative bacteria usually breed on equipment that is not sufficiently cleaned.E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) One of the most common clinical syndromes associated with a bacterial infection is sepsis, which can be bacteria, which ultimately leads to a generalized infection of internal organs and systems. This can be prevented by a good cleaning of dishes and equipment. Since such bacteria lead to the development of various diseases in newborns, it is very important to disinfect incubators and houses well.
Terms. The following is a list of terms to be familiar with.
Antiseptic – a substance that destroys microorganisms or inhibits their growth.
Biostat – a substance that inhibits growth and prevents the further reproduction of pathogens, but does not necessarily kill them. Must be used regularly to control pathogens.
Photo of Lilia Yakovleva
Vegetation – passive state of development when bacteria do not multiply.
Disputes – some bacteria form spores, more to provide a defense mechanism than to reproduce. Bacterial spores are difficult to destroy because they are resistant to high temperatures.
Lipophilic viruses – viruses in the lipid or fatty membranes. They are less resistant and more susceptible to disinfection.
Hydrophilic or capsid virus – a virus with a protein coat around its central core, which protects the virus and makes it more resistant to disinfectants.
Disinfection – the destruction of infectious organisms, namely bacteria, viruses and fungi. It is important that disinfection occurs during the final phase of the cleaning process.
Intensive disinfectant – a tool that can destroy all microorganisms, which is equivalent to sterilization.
Intermediate level disinfectant – a tool that kills all vegetative bacteria, fungi, tuberculosis bacilli and most viruses.
Low level disinfectant – means destroying vegetative bacteria and fungi.
Soap and detergents (detergents) – formulations designed to penetrate dirt and grease to help hot water dissolve and rinse effectively. Soap and hot water are the first step in a cleaning program.
Sterilization – complete destruction of all microorganisms, including: bacteria, spores, fungi and viruses. Sterilization can be achieved by chemical or physical means. Physical means are heat, light, radiation and filtration. Chemicals – intensive disinfectants. Complete sterilization can hardly be carried out when cleaning a bird’s house, although it is necessary to strive for it. During outbreaks of diseases, sterilization is required.
Cleaning – reduction of bacterial contaminants to a safe level. The product that says “cleaner” on its label is not concentrated enough to kill all pathogens. It can only help reduce them to a safe level.
Bactericidal drug (bactericide) – kills certain types of pathogenic microorganisms if used directionally. Carefully read the labels for these drugs to choose the right one for your problem. Bactericidal drugs do not kill spores, viruses, tuberculosis or fungi. Since they act in a targeted manner, they are very useful when pathogens are identified.
Sometimes it is necessary to use several types of disinfectants and cleansing procedures to effectively deal with pathogens.
Bacteria and fungi do not create big problems in an aviary or cage, where they adhere to hygiene, but it is quite difficult to cope with viruses without disinfectants. Disinfectants are important, but should be used very carefully. In combination with other methods, they can prevent dangerous outbreaks of various diseases.
Cleaning program. An effective cleaning program should be carefully thought out and regularly performed. Before disinfecting or sterilizing without fail, thoroughly clean all items. Using soap and water, a multi-purpose cleaner, or the recommended disinfectant, you can get rid of such contaminants as urine, feces, food debris, etc.
For disinfection, it is necessary to use three containers: in the first, detergent and water must be present, in the second – an intermediate level disinfectant, and in the third – plain rinse water. Leave the contaminated item to soak in detergent and water, remove all dried up dirt, put it at least half an hour in a disinfectant, and then rinse well in clean water. Dry, if possible, in the sun. For stronger disinfection, choose an intensive or intermediate disinfectant.
Always carefully read the labels of such products and strictly follow all the recommendations! You may need to use a sterilization agent to prevent or stop the development of the disease. It is recommended to periodically sterilize all surfaces and objects that are in contact with the bird. For complete sterilization, it is recommended to leave objects in solution overnight. In most cases, good cleaning does not require sterilization, but sterilization should be used periodically. This is especially true for outbreaks of disease. Sterilization can be carried out using a steam sterilizer, fire, hot thermostat, steam under pressure, irradiation or scalding in boiling water for 20 minutes. For birds, it is most practical to use cold (chemical) sterilization with an intensive disinfectant.
The choice of disinfectant should be based on the type of organisms to be disposed of, the surface or object to be disinfected, the risk of harm and, of course, cost-effectiveness. Disinfectants are not equally effective against all pathogens. Wrong choices can lead to the spread of the disease. To reduce the number of infectious organisms in the avian environment, it is necessary to develop a cleaning program that includes the use of alternately different disinfectants.